1] July 4th 1776 is famous for what?
The official signing of the Declaration of Independence. It was completed on July 2nd and hand-distributed to the people at the convention. The 4th is when the printed version was finished and distributed to the colonies.
2] How many American colonies went to war with Great Britain in the War of Independence?
Thirteen. Our lucky number.
3] Where was the first shot fired in the American Revolution?
Either Lexington or Concord. Garry thinks it was Lexington. The actual battle was fought on a field between the two towns (they are very close together) and is recreated annually at dawn on April 19th (1775). That’s why we have a Massachusetts holiday called Patriot’s Day on or about the 19th of April. It’s a state, not a national holiday. That’s when we have the Boston Marathon. It’s a big deal, at least in Massachusetts.
I’ve been to the recreation of the battle a couple of times when Garry was covering the story.
4] Where was the Declaration of Independence signed?
Philadelphia. Independence Hall. Been there. Have pictures.
5] Which Founding Father did NOT sign the Declaration of Independence?
Robert Livingston — who was one of the authors — felt it was too early to declare independence and didn’t sign.
“Founding fathers” isn’t a real “thing.” The people who signed the Declaration of Independence were the heads (governors and senators or just really rich guys) who controlled the colonies rebelling against George III –and were important members of their houses of Congress or otherwise elected officials.
There were other people who were significant in the founding the country though many were not important until AFTER the war was over, like Hamilton who was essentially a kid when the declaration was signed. So many who did not sign it hadn’t achieved the status they got after the Revolution. Also, some were very young when the Declaration was signed. They were founding fathers too, but a bit young to be signing anything.
Not everyone who was later very important to the country was a member of the group who wrote and released the document. And yes, Benjamin Franklin definitely DID sign. He was the Ambassador (one of them) to England and France, so he was there. And he signed. He was also very important in convincing the southern contingent to sign the Declaration AND the Constitution — and sadly, one of the people who helped keep this a slave-owning country. I understand why he did it, but it was the Devil’s bargain and we have paid heavily for it.
Many of the people who DID sign the Declaration of Independence were not founding fathers, but they were important to the states they represented. Probably anyone who signed the Constitution was a founding father, but that was in September 1787 — eleven years later and a very different thing.
The founding of this country wasn’t an event. It was a process. As I said, “founding fathers” isn’t an official thing. There’s no list of who they were because essentially everyone who was important in creating the government for the first few dozen years was a founding father.
Signers of the Declaration of Independence:
- John Adams
- Samuel Adams (John’s cousin and later the guy who made beer — really, no kidding and his family still make beer and ale)
- Josiah Bartlett
- Carter Braxton
- Charles Carroll
- Samuel Chase
- Abraham Clark
- George Clymer
- William Ellery
- William Floyd
- Benjamin Franklin
- Elbridge Gerry
- Button Gwinnett
- John Hancock
- Lyman Hall
- Benjamin Harrison (grandfather of the Benjamin Harrison who became a U.S. President).
- John Hart
- Joseph Hewes
- Thomas Heyward, Jr.
- William Hooper
- Stephen Hopkins
- Francis Hopkinson
- Samuel Huntington
- Thomas Jefferson
- Francis Lightfoot Lee
- Richard Henry Lee
- Francis Lewis
- Philip Livingston
- Thomas Lynch, Jr.
- Thomas McKean
- Arthur Middleton
- Lewis Morris
- Robert Morris
- John Morton
- Thomas Nelson, Jr.
- William Paca
- John Penn
- Robert Treat Paine
- George Read
- Caesar Rodney
- George Ross
- Benjamin Rush
- Edward Rutledge
- Roger Sherman
- James Smith
- Richard Stockton
- Thomas Stone
- George Taylor
- Charles Thomson (Secretary, attested to Hancock’s signature)
- Matthew Thornton
- George Walton
- William Whipple
- William Williams
- James Wilson
- John Witherspoon
- Oliver Wolcott
- George Wythe
There were TWO signings.
The first, before it was printed and distributed took place on July 2, 1776. Everyone signed the official and PRINTED version (July 4, 1776). This is a well-argued point of historical order. Most people feel anyone who signed the final printed version is “official.”
6] When did July 4 become a federal holiday?
In 1870 it became a national holiday. However, unofficially, it was celebrated from the beginning, especially in New England.
7] Name of the film starring Bill Pullman, Will Smith & Jeff Goldblum
Independence Day, but it had nothing to do with Independence. I always wondered how Goldblum’s computer worked after running full on for more than a week without ever being recharged. I want THAT battery.
9] But which presidents died on July 4th?
Thomas Jefferson and John Adams both died simultaneously on July 4, 1826. Ironic, because they were enemies and hadn’t spoken to each other for many years. I think they had reestablished a written relationship toward the end of their lives. Weird, but true. Monroe died on the 4th in 1831.
10] Name of the film starring Bill Pullman, Liam Hemsworth & Jeff Goldblum
Independence Day 2 or whatever they named it. I did not see the movie, not even on TV.
11] Which monarch reigned over the colonists at the time of the American Revolution?
Supposedly Patrick Henry in a speech he gave in the Virginia House of Burgesses. He didn’t sign the Declaration either and he isn’t a founding father, but he did make great speeches.
13] Which is the largest signature on the Declaration of Independence?
John Hancock. He was also the richest signer of the Declaration, so maybe that’s why he signed it so big.
14] Who was appointed as the commander in chief of the British army in America in April 1776?
Howe, I think. I forget his first name. He was not the last or only one. There were a bunch of them.
15] “We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal…”? is found on which document?
Declaration of Independence. But they didn’t mean anyone who wasn’t white. Some people meant it (the northerners), but the rest of them didn’t.
And how, you ask, did I actually know this stuff off the top of my head (no, I didn’t look it up except for the second Independence Day movie which I’ve never seen)?
Glad you asked. I judged the history category of the Audie Awards for a couple of years. One year, I swear I listened to a thousand pages of American history, mostly about the revolution and the Constitutional Convention. I hadn’t done much reading in that area of history, but I sure did catch up!
Also, note that George Washington was not a “founding father” because he wasn’t part of the group who wrote the Declaration. He WAS part of the group who wrote the constitution. He gained a lot of points for winning the Revolution.