WHAT’S WITH THE GYPSY MOTHS?

They are back. Not in our back yard (yet), but that doesn’t mean they aren’t here. If they are up in the trees, we won’t see them for a week or two. Meanwhile, a couple of miles down the road, they are munching away on my son’s trees. He has managed to rescue a beloved old apple tree, but the oaks are going down for a second year.

The cold, wet weather is on our side. I may complain about it because it really sets off the arthritis, but it may save us — to some extent — from the caterpillars. As long as it stays chilly and rainy, there’s a decent chance the invasion will be minimal. If not, it will most likely be worse than last year, something I have trouble imagining and which has both of us seriously creeped out.

Garry isn’t normally afraid of bugs, but he has developed a healthy loathing for these invaders.

Last year, they ate about 350,000 acres of hardwoods. If the weather dries up and the temperatures go up, they could easily knock off twice as much this year. Many people have been spraying and every little bit helps. We’ll get sprayed again, probably next week.

If you live in New England and you are seeing well-grown caterpillars — they would be the ones showing blue and/or red dots on their back — I’d appreciate you letting me know where you are and how bad it appears to be. Right now is when we would be heading into the worst of the invasion. June is the month. The caterpillars feed well into June, at the end of which they pupate and form cocoons.

The 2016 outbreak was the largest gypsy moth outbreak in the state since the early 1980s. In the 1980s, the damage was even more widespread, with 900,000 acres of woods stripped in 1980 and 2 million defoliated acres in 1981.

More recently gypsy moth damage hasn’t been as bad because, since about 1989, a caterpillar-killing fungus has greatly reduced their numbers. But drought conditions in 2015 and 2016 reduced the fungus’ ability to infect young caterpillars and the population boomed. This spring’s cool, rainy weather has the potential to save us. The fungus might make enough of a comeback to dent the caterpillar population for the remainder of 2017.

Defoliated oaks in July 2016

Neither of us remembered the 1980s invasions. Garry was living in Boston in a high-rise in the 1980s while I lived in Jerusalem. That’s probably why it took us so long to figure out what was happening. I looked through my posts from last year. This was approximately when we started to realize something ugly was happening. Between the end of May and a week later, I stopped leaving the house. At all. Three weeks later, the caterpillars had eaten every leaf on every tree.

Invasion map for 2016. We live in the big red patch at the bottom (on the Rhode Island border) in the middle of the state. It was bad.

These invasions are usually a couple of years which run together. The second year is typically worse than the first.

I’m trying not to make myself insane with worry, but it is hard not to worry. Ignore my complaints about the cold, wet weather. Bring on more cold wet weather. Keep it wet and keep it chilly. It’s our best defense against the killer creepers.

The caterpillar pictures Garry took at our house were as of June 9, 2016, the beginning of the worst part of the invasion. We aren’t there yet, so all we can do is hope … worry … then hope a little more.

MORE INFORMATION

What is a gypsy moth?

It’s a species of moth native to Europe and Asia. Historians believe they were first introduced to Massachusetts by Etienne Leopold Trouvelot, a Medford-based amateur entomologist who tried to breed a hybrid gypsy-silk moth in the late 1860s. To say that his attempts to produce a silkworm went wildly awry doesn’t begin to cover the damage that has resulted from his doomed experiments. Gypsy moths have spread across the continent, down into Mexico and up into Canada, including Alberta.

Why do I keep hearing about them?

Last year, Massachusetts saw its first major gypsy moth infestation in 35 years. A specific variety of fungus typically keeps the invasive species in check, but a statewide drought last year kept fungus levels low and allowed the gypsy moth population to balloon. And as of late last month, scientists said this season’s eggs are beginning to hatch—setting the state up for another bout with the creatures. Unless the bad weather keeps them in check, this could be a very bad year. Worse than last year.

What’s the big deal about some moths?

Gypsy moth caterpillars are responsible for mass deforestation. Last year, they stripped leaves from more than 350,000 acres of trees across Massachusetts, with the heaviest concentration in eastern and central parts of the state. They favor oak, aspen, apple, and willow trees, especially. Full-grown gypsy moth caterpillars are 1.5 to 2 inches long. A single larva can consume as much as a square foot of leaves per day, according to the University of Illinois Extension website. Last year, we could actually hear them chewing. It’s a horrible sound.\he caterpillars go on to produce a proportional amount of fecal matter, which can make it impossible to enjoy outdoor activities. The trees are left bare, limiting autumn foliage and allowing sunlight into parts of the woods which are normally shaded. Not good for plants or animals.

Any danger to people?

Yes. Although gypsy moth caterpillars do not bite, they frequently cause a red, itchy rash. Garry got a nasty one last year on his arms. The rash can last a few days or weeks. Wear long sleeves, a hat, long pants, socks, closed shoes, and gloves if you need to handle them. If you develop a rash, take antihistamines to relieve itching, or see your doctor if it’s very bad.

Is there anything I can do to keep them away?

If you spotted gypsy moth eggs in your trees earlier this year or late last year — Massachusetts Wildlife Magazine describes them as “tawny brown egg masses”—now’s the time to call a tree care professional, who can safely apply pesticides to keep the caterpillars at bay. Mass Audubon also suggests a number of DIY solutions.

And regardless, if you were invaded last year, there’s every reason to assume — whether you see them or not — they are on the way.



Categories: Blackstone Valley, Ecology, Gardens, trees, Woods

Tags: , , , , , , ,

32 replies

  1. This infestation is like something Alfred Hitchcock would have come up with and his movies always scared the heck out of me. This is no exception. 🙂

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  2. Yikes. I didn’t realize that these creatures are invaders, or how much damage the cause. Will we ever learn in regards to introducing creatures that don’t belong in this part of the world?

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    • I think this was one of the first of the many evil invasions we INVITED to our shores. Of course there’s the kuzu in the south and a variety of birds, the near destruction of the American bat population … and so much more. We don’t seem to learn to leave nature to its own devices. It is so much better at managing itself than anything we can do.

      Liked by 1 person

  3. Who ever thought there would be a fungus to actually root for. I wouldn’t wish those nasty things on anyone, so I will send my best death ray vibes towards the horde…

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    • All death ray vibes gratefully accepted. I’m just about holding my breath, waiting to see how it will go. Everyone has run out of poison. You can’t GET anyone to come and spray now. There has been a run on anti-caterpillar poisons. By the time the new stuff arrives, the show will be over. I can’t believe we are going to go through this again. Arggh!

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  4. I used to hate the cicadas every seventeen years but this is unbelievable. I would be grossed out, too! Good luck.

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  5. Our daughter tells me the Gypsy Moths are here too. I haven’t seen them yet.

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  6. The dreary weather has been a bummer but if it wipes out the caterpillars I will be very happy. Maybe it’s the Big Guy’s present to us. He owes us after the Presidential election.

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  7. I was here in the last invasion, as a selling craftsman, and at that stage (the second year) what used to be shade trees and in high demand for craftspeople, were now avoided like the plague.

    They come back, yeah, and the good news is the third year they slowly disappear. Really.
    Basically they starve themselves out of the action.

    The saying is akin to treating a cold: do nothing, and after seven days the cold disappears. See the doctor, take aspirin, drink lots of liquids, and after a week the cold is gone. No matter what you or anyone else does or doesnt do, they have a cycle to run through and then they’re gone.

    And that chewing sound you hear? That isn’t chewing. That’s caterpillar shit hitting the leaves overhead. Wear a hat.

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    • I am SO creeped out by this, you have no idea. We’re going to the store to shop for food, drop off a check (we sold the old yellow car), and get a couple of weeks of supplies so if it gets really bad, I won’t have to go out there. This stuff gives me nightmares.

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  8. Fingers crossed it doesn’t get as bad as last year.

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  9. Fingers crossed for you after last year.

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  10. Hopefully it will not happen again.

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  11. Hope you are spared these pest.

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  12. I’m hoping that the cold and damp will protect you from the nasty little critters

    Like

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